Cancer Personal Therapy
Abstract: Cancer treatment has always been a topic of concern. It is more effective if it can make individualized treatment plan for each patient. The following paper introduces some popular personal cancer therapies.
Recently, startup company Perthera has become increasingly popular in press releases. The name, Perthera, is an amalgam of "personalized" and "therapy". Perthera is a company providing novel cutting edge personalized cancer care service. The service aims to optimize treatment for cancer using state-of-the-art diagnostic tools that customize recommendations to patient for their specific type of cancer.
It is believed that the one-size-fits all approach to treating patients with advanced cancer is coming to an end. In the past a few years, doctors have realized that although tumors can be well classified based on their patterns under the microscope, each patient’s tumor is unique at the molecular level. These differences explain the various responses on different patients for the same treatment. Therefore, a tailored cancer therapy based on the unique profile of each individual can potentially result in a better outcome.
Perthera’s service is an example of the new personalized approach for cancer treatment that is based on a molecular analysis of the tumor and a detailed understanding of the patients and their medical and treatment history. Perthera works with the physician to get the appropriate tissue, and send to multiple diagnostic companies to analyze the molecular profile of the cancer. Profile consists of genomics, proteomics and phosphopreoteomics information. This profile is then analyzed by an expert oncology platform for medical review. The analysis is coalesced into an actionable physician report that delivers ranked options of FDA-approved (on-label and off-label) drugs and clinical trials that could be of benefit to your patient. This report can also be used to supplement the oncologist to provide the best treatment plan with the patient. It’s worth to noting that Perthera will assist physicians in clinical enrollment if the option is selected.
Perthera, this US-based company also provide conventional optional to cancer patients aboard. They told OCHIS that for patients from China, it’s possible to receive their service without travelling to the States.
Besides, Champions Oncology is also engaged in the development of advanced technology solutions and services to personalize the development and use of oncology drugs. It is an American technology company founded in 2007 by a famous Johns Hopkins oncologist David Sidransky, M.D., Champions TumorGraft® (CTG) platform offers a model for growing and testing human tumours, providing oncologists with the best course of drug treatments for cancer patients.
The procedure involves there steps: first, extract a piece of living tumor when a cancer patient undergoes surgery or biopsy; then grow the TumorGraft tumor model in lab mice, which generally will take two months or longer; finally, test various drugs on them to see which is best suited for that particular cancer in that particular patient, a robust report on the effectiveness of each tested cancer therapy on the PDX models will be given. After all these procedures, the Champions TumorGraft® PDX model is preserved as a living sample, which could be regrown and tested in the event of cancer progression or recurrence for future use. The entire process (implantation through testing) typically takes 12-16 weeks.
Compare to the traditional xenografts, the Champions TumorGraft® PDX models with an accuracy over 90% are more accurate, which maintain a near-perfect correlation in gene expression with the original tumor and strong accuracy with clinical response to standard of care agents. Until July 2015, Champions has engrafted over 900 individual patient tumors, and of these, approximately 70 percent grew and established a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model.
Personalized cancer therapy is now also available at University of California San Diego Health through the center for personalized cancer therapy (CPCT). CPCT operates under the framework of UC San Diego Health and Moores Cancer Center, one of the best hospitals and cancer center in the US. CPCT focus on genomics and immunotherapy. Each patient’s cancer profiles can be identified by gathering information on the abnormal tumor genetic code. Thus, treatment can be tailored for each individual.
This center accepts patients with all kinds of cancer. The tumor’s genetic profile will be generated for each individual by the next generation sequencing tools. And the best treatment plan is made by a multidisciplinary group of expert physicians and world renowned scientists. This is not possibly provided by most physicians who are not trained in advanced genomics. A study recently published paper from CPCT reported that Of the 123 abnormalities found in the patient's’ genetic cancer profiles, 107 of these irregularities appeared only once. And no two patients shared the same abnormalities profile. This confirmed that cancer can be different from patient to patient. Not everyone will respond to conventional treatment.
The treatment provided by CPCT could include one of the more than 200 clinical trials for novel therapies available in Moores Cancer Center. Cutting-edge therapies are provided before they are widely available at somewhere else. These clinical trials fall into three categories: early phase clinical trials, which have a focus on safety and important response signals; genomically-driven clinical trials, which use molecular analysis of tumors to choose a matched targeted anticancer therapy; and immunotherapy program, which focus on individualized therapies that stimulate and retrain the immune system to fight cancer.
Beside the above companies, there are lots of other companies or hospitals offering personalized cancer therapy. For example, Oncotype DX has diagnostic tests for personalized breast, colon and prostate cancer treatment; MenaStat Inc. is dedicated to breast, prostate, lung and colorectal cancers; Exosome Diagnostics Inc offers personalized treatment for prostate, lung and solid tumor; hospitals like Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center and MD Anderson Cancer Center also offers personalized therapy. Intel also announced Collaborative Cancer Cloud plan this year, which is targeted to securely share patient data for faster personalized cancer treatment plan. OCHIS summarized nine companies in this field and their targeted cancer types in the graph shown above.